UK Blood Contamination Scandal: Prime Minister's Apology and Delayed Justice

查尔斯

Credit: CC0 Public Domain,Le prince Charles,Prince de Galles(Charles Philip Arthur George)by COPPARIS2015

On Monday, UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak apologized to the victims and families affected by one of the country's most severe healthcare failures, following a report indicating that the blood contamination, which resulted in the deaths of 3,000 people and infected over 30,000, could have largely been avoided.

“This is a day of shame for the UK government,” Sunak told MPs in the House of Commons, offering a “wholehearted and unequivocal apology” for what he described as repeated failures by British officials.

“I am truly sorry,” he said, just hours after the release of a long-awaited report that identified a “catalogue of failures” by the UK government and healthcare officials over more than two decades, most of which were avoidable mistakes that were subsequently covered up.

The comprehensive report, spanning 2,000 pages, stems from an inquiry launched in 2017 into the blood product contamination scandal. Regrettably, the report ultimately revealed that UK institutions bore absolute responsibility for the blood contamination incidents spanning decades. The UK government has committed to providing full compensation to those infected and their families, and to formulating new policies to prevent similar incidents in the future, based on the inquiry's findings.

Incident Background

Treloar College, a boarding school for disabled children, hosted a hemophilia center managed by doctors and nurses from the UK's National Health Service (NHS). Between 1974 and 1987, 122 students with hemophilia at the school received a new therapy. Unfortunately, instead of curing them, this treatment led to death. These students contracted hepatitis or AIDS, with some suffering from both fatal diseases. Today, only 32 of the original 122 patients are still alive, continuing to battle these illnesses.

The new therapy involved collecting clotting factors VIII/IX from the blood of other individuals, creating a concentrated product to treat hemophilia. While revolutionary for hemophilia treatment, the NHS recognized that domestic plasma supplies were insufficient to meet the needs of patients in the UK. Consequently, starting in 1970, the NHS began importing large quantities of plasma from the United States. However, the NHS lacked the capability to process these blood products to eliminate viruses, including hepatitis and HIV.

According to the UK Haemophilia Society, between 1974 and 1987, this blood product contamination incident resulted in over 5,000 people contracting HIV and hepatitis, causing more than 3,000 deaths. As of May 20, 2024, the inquiry report suggested that over 30,000 people might have been infected due to the blood product contamination incident.

The Delayed Truth

From the onset of the infections, the UK government took years to address the issue and even ignored the demands of victims and their families. In 2009, the government released a report but did not summon relevant departments to explain the incident. This unsatisfactory move led victims and their families to continue protesting against the UK government. Under persistent pressure, the government reopened the inquiry into the blood product contamination incident in 2017. This inquiry, lasting six years, resulted in the UK government feeling societal pressure. Even before the report's release, the government agreed in 2022 to issue an interim payment of £100,000 to each victim.

However, the victims sought to understand the causes of the incident and the government's accountability. On May 20, 2024, the inquiry report, after over six years, provided a detailed account of the event. The report harshly criticized the publicly funded National Health Service, condemning the authorities for "systemic, collective, and individual failures." Furthermore, it revealed that from the 1970s to the early 1990s, the authorities and successive governments consistently denied and concealed most of the truth.

At a press conference, former High Court judge Brian Langstaff, who led the inquiry, addressed the victims and their families, highlighting a series of severe failings by health and government officials who did not prioritize patient safety, which was met with cheers and applause from the audience.

The current Prime Minister has also pledged that the government will provide full compensation to those infected and their families and will consider the report's extensive recommendations to prevent a recurrence of such incidents.

While the victims and their families welcomed the inquiry report, whether it fully meets their expectations will depend on the subsequent actions of the UK government. Similar scandals have occurred in other countries like the United States and Japan.

Reference:

  1. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/world-48122811

  2. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/05/20/world/europe/britain-contaminated-blood-scandal.html