INSIGHT of Medicine(phase 8,2024)


1.Mucosal Immunity Related to CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Children with Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral-shaped bacterium that commonly colonizes the gastric mucosa. It is a significant pathogenic factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Early infection with H. pylori can occur in infancy, and if left untreated, it can progress to chronic infection. The role of Th1 cells in the immune response of gastric mucosa to H. pylori is well-established among CD4 T cells, while the mechanism of action of CD8 T cells remains unclear.

This study screened and excluded children with abdominal pain who visited or were hospitalized in the pediatric department of Jeju National University Hospital from July 2019 to May 2022. A total of 39 pediatric patients were included, and gastric mucosal tissue and blood samples were collected for grouping. Among them, 11 patients were confirmed positive for H. pylori infection in the positive group, and 28 patients were negative in the control group. Gastric mucosal tissue samples were collected by endoscopy, and blood samples were collected for comparison. According to the study results, IFN-γ-secreting CD8 T and Th1 cells may play an important role in the gastric mucosal immunity of children infected with H. pylori.


2.High Soluble Fiber Promotes Colorectal Tumorigenesis Through Modulating Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Mice

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadliest cancers globally. The occurrence of colorectal cancer is closely associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, the role of dietary fiber, primarily fermented by the intestinal microbiota, in the mechanisms related to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear.

In this study, experimental mouse models were fed a high-fiber diet, and fecal microbiota and metabolites were analyzed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The study results suggest that high doses of soluble, but not insoluble, fiber enhance colorectal tumor formation in a dose-dependent manner by disrupting the intestinal microbiota and metabolites in mice.


3.Management of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease:A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Presentation, Workup, and Treatment

Parkinson's disease commonly presents with gastrointestinal symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, nausea, bloating, and constipation. Some experts believe that this is related to the pathological involvement of the enteric nervous system. Additionally, gastrointestinal symptoms are also associated with medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. This article provides a review of the gastrointestinal manifestations of Parkinson's disease, focusing on clinical presentations, diagnostic evaluations, treatment strategies, and more.

DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001961